Riset ke Rudenim Gowa

Bersama Dr Yulia Qomariyanti

cta blue train2


by Heru Susetyo

Arya always loves boarding the train to O’Hare Airport from downtown Chicago.  The trip is only forty-five minutes by CTA blue line train where he can board anywhere along the blue line in the loop, right in downtown Chicago or near the centre.

The second thing he loves much is O’Hare Airport. A vast airport named after O’Hare, a legend hero of U.S. Air Force who had survived along with the dog fight during the Pacific War in World War II and contributed immensely to the U.S. and alliance’s victory.

O’Hare, instead of the biggest airport in Chicago, not to mention in the U.S., is also the busiest airport in the world, with almost 80 million passenger landing and taking off its runways each year.  It has twelve runways that mean twelve big planes may land or take off concurrently without being run down each other.

However, irrespective of O’Hare’s great features, Arya loves this place much because the site left a bunch of memories.  He firstly met Dessy, an attractive Indonesian girl, right in Terminal 2 when Arya mistakenly called Dessy, eight years ago.  Arya judged Dessy as Dini, his old buddy who lives in Dallas, Texas, and who wants to spend her spring break in Chicago.  However, this Dini was sharply different.  She had just landed directly from Surabaya to start her new life as an incoming student at the Undergraduate program University of Illinois at Chicago.  A couple of minutes of chitchatting had lapsed until Arya realized that Dessy was not his old buddy.  However, since they found that no more Indonesian guys appear in O’Hare, they soon got in touch.

“I beg your pardon, Miss, are you from Indonesia?”   Arya asked carefully.  “I am.  Do I happen to know you before?”  Dessy calmly replied.  “I guess so. You’re Dini, right?”  You spent your high school with me in Arlington Heights, Dallas. We were the only Indonesian students at that lovely school.” “Oh gitu ya?  kalau gitu kamu orang Indonesia dong.  Kenapa kita gak ngomong Indonesia aja ?”.  “I got a problem, Miss…  . “Panggil aku Dessy, Mas,” Dessy replied abruptly.

“I have spent almost twenty years in the U.S. since I was born.  I met American guys every day.  Not a single Indonesian I met within the first three years in Texas except Dini, whose face is pretty similar to yours.  I have missed her for ten years until suddenly she appears right in front of me now,” Arya said calmly.  “Enak aja Mas,  aku bukan Dini lagi.  Aku Dessy. D-E-S-S-Y.  Ingat ya, dan jangan ngomong Inggris di depan aku!” Dessy interrupted fiercely.   “I’m so sorry, Miss Dini eh Dessy, but I indeed can’t speak Indonesian properly.  I completely understand Bahasa Indonesia, but I just can’t speak bahasa properly, which makes me doubt to express my Indonesian.  “Terserah elo deh Mas,  yang penting sekarang tolong temani aku keluar dari airport ini, dan tolong jangan panggil aku Miss Dessy,  tapi Dessy saja,” again, Dessy replied fiercely.  Subsequently, they walked across terminal 2 and headed downstairs to CTA blue train. They took the first train to downtown and spend forty-five minutes of chitchatting.  Dessy spoke Indonesian, Arya spoke English.

Eight years later. Arya is smiling to himself. He recalls his first encounter with Dessy.  It was eight years ago.  Currently, Dessy has earned her bachelor’s degree in accounting and a master’s degree in Computer Science. Arya holds a bachelor’s degree in sociology from the University of Texas in Austin, a J.D. in law and a master’s degree in criminology both from the University of Chicago.  He also earned a PhD in Criminology from Southern Illinois University in Carbondale. Arya was admitted to the Bar Association three years ago, which enabled him to practice law either in a law firm or in any U.S. government entities.  American bar usually declines a prospective candidate who is not American.  Fortunately, Arya was born in New York twenty-nine years ago. His only touch with Indonesia is when he spent his six years of the elementary school in Semarang, Central Java. After graduation, he returned to the U.S. until now  His middle and high school was in Dallas, Texas.  His undergraduate study was in Austin, Texas.  His J.D and master study was in Chicago, Illinois, and his Doctoral research was in Carbondale, Illinois. Therefore, he is unquestionably an American yuppie but with brown skin.

Isn’t he?   He does not think so.  Frankly speaking, Arya is an American yuppie with Indonesian’s heart and soul.  He has spent more than half of his life in America.  However, he still pays much concern to Indonesia.  He occasionally cries when he heard the disasters, riots, or political unrest occurred respectively in Indonesia. He reads Indonesian online newspapers almost every day. He is eager to return to Indonesia, but he just doesn’t know the appropriate job for him in Indonesia.

And Dessy is his ‘bridge’ to Indonesia.  Although they live separately and having a few different attitudes, they do have something in common.  That they are Indonesian, and they love Indonesia very much.  Dessy and Arya hang around Chicago either by bus or CTA train frequently.  Among the journey they like most is the CTA blue line train to O’Hare from Downtown Chicago.  They admire the scenery of Chicago’s skyscrapers from blue line train, with The  Sears Tower, the second-highest building in the world, and John Hancock Building stretching along the side of Lake Michigan in the distance.  “I love this blue train,” Arya talked to himself.  “Sorry Mas, kamu ngomong sama siapa?”  Dessy interrupted abruptly.  “I talked to myself, I always love this blue train,” Arya said calmly.  “Suka sama blue train atau suka sama aku,” Dessy teased him.  “I don’t know, no further comment,” Arya replied, and his face turns into red immediately.  Honestly, Arya always treats Dessy as a mate.  Not a special one. Therefore, he was not ready for the answers.

One thick letter with the words “Indonesian General Consulate in Chicago’ at its letterhead arrived at Arya’s apartment the next day, and it changed his life overwhelmingly.  The consulate had forwarded an official letter from Indonesian’s House of Representatives (DPR). They have nominated Arya as a candidate for the vice chairman position at the Indonesian Anti Corruption Commission. “Me?  Vice-chairman Candidate?  How come?  I can’t speak Indonesian properly, and I don’t even know the Indonesian criminal justice system. Why me?”  Arya just couldn’t believe his eyes.

The answer to his question arrived the next day.  Indonesian ambassador in Washington DC kindly invited him to an informal meeting in the embassy.  So, Arya took the earliest American Airlines flight to D.C., landed at National Reagan Airport, and preceded to Massachusetts Avenue.  The ambassador warmly welcomes him and talks straightly:  “Pak Arya, I have the honour on behalf of the Indonesian government to convey you a very important message.   Indonesian Parliament unanimously nominated you to be the vice-chairman of Indonesian Anti Corruption Commission a week ago.  It was the final decision. They need only one last approval from the President.  You may doubt this nomination, but the Indonesian government has been observing and envisaging you for quite a long time until they ended up with DPR approval to nominate you.”

“Mr Ambassador, I’m so flattered and honoured with this nomination, I just can’t believe my ears. Why me?  Let me mention my weaknesses.  I’ve been living in the U.S. for twenty-three years. I earned my undergraduate and a graduate degree from U.S. universities. I hold an American bar license to practice law in the U.S., not in Indonesia.

Last but not least, I can’t speak Indonesian fluently. So, why me?”  Arya asked anxiously.

“Honestly, Pak Arya, you’ve just mentioned the strong points instead of your weaknesses.  The Parliament unanimously voted in favour of you because you fulfil such requirements they love much.  You have a deep understanding of U.S. law, excellent in English, eligible to practice law in the U.S., young and intelligent, earning a doctoral degree in U.S. Criminal Justice System,  and fortunately,  only you among Indonesian citizens worldwide really meet the expectations.  The U.S. government partly funds this commission, so they are eager to see an Indonesian fellow with excellent knowledge and skills of U.S. law chairs the commission. Moreover, we have a bunch of U.S. law school graduates, but none have an American bar license.  I have to underscore Pak Arya boldly, We appoint you to be the vice-chairman of the commission, not offering you. I bet that you have no better choice. Indonesia damned needs you. We need you to go back to Indonesia. We’re not worried about your language. You’re a hundred per cent Indonesian descent, so we believe in few months h you can retrieve your Bahasa Indonesia back. Trust me!”  Mr Ambassador said firmly as a commander gave an order to a rookie.

During his returning flight to Chicago, Arya had a complicated daydream.  He has just approved the nomination.  The ambassador shook his hand firmly and told him to get a pack and prepare everything for his immediate departure.

He just can’t believe this situation.  He is an American lawyer with a fast track to being a wealthy partner in upcoming years at his law firm yesterday.  But, suddenly, he has to go back to be another ‘Indonesian Hero’ and chair a commission he doesn’t even know. Why can life change drastically?

Dessy picks Arya up at O’Hare right on time.  They head to CTA train and, as usual, take the blue train to downtown Chicago. Arya keeps silent.  Dessy stares curiously at Arya.  “Kenapa Mas, kamu sakit?”  Kita mampir dulu ya di Wal Greens beli obat flu. Kayaknya kamu kena angin dingin di D.C. deh,” Dessy seemed to be a worry.  “No, thanks, Dessy.  I’m OK.  I’m just wondering that this will be my last trip with the blue train.”   “Oh, my goodness. What’s wrong with you Mas?”  Dessy shouted frantically.  “Next Monday I’ve to fly to Jakarta. I’m going to live there for at least five years. The Indonesian government had appointed me to co-chair the Anti Corruption Commission as a vice-chairman.  “You must be kidding Mas,” Dessy laughed. “You can’t speak Indonesian fluently, and you don’t even understand Indonesian law, you must be sick, Mas. Let me purchase flu medicine for you.”

“I’m not kidding. I’m damned serious, Dessy.  I told the same excuses as you did to Pak Djoko, Indonesian ambassador in D.C., but they were worthless.  I argued to him until, eventually, he said that this was an order from the Indonesian government.  We appointed you, not offered you.  I have no more words. He gave me a week to resign from my firm, get a pack and prepare anything to my departure to Jakarta,” Arya said.

“They must be joking Mas.  They gave you no alternatives and simply ordered you to return to Indonesia within a week.  You’ve been working in a U.S. law firm for three years and earned almost a hundred thousand bucks a year. They have violated your civil rights, Mas Arya, why don’t you argue them?  How much do they pay your monthly salary?”  Dessy said anxiously.

“Honestly, Dessy.  I’ve never thought that far.  My monthly salary will be twelve million rupiahs a month or less than twenty per cent of my salary in Chicago law firm. However, I need it, indeed.  I want to go back to Indonesia, our lovely country, and contribute to its development.  I’ve never thought that I’m qualified for that job or not, but it’s challenging.   Can you imagine we work hand in hand to fight against corruption?”  Arya said proudly.

“You’re a nut, Mas.  I’m sorry to say.  You’re going to leave your fast track to wealth and prosperity life to pursue another fuzzy job. Unbelievable. If I were you, I prefer to earn a lot of money and simply donate them as a zakat or infaq to Indonesia, and I strongly believe it will work any better. “It’s not that simple, Dessy.  I love Indonesia more than any country in the world.”  “All right, Mas, but the most important thing is… what about our relationship?  Should you leave and tell me goodbye forever?”  Dessy kept this ‘bullet’ for the last. Her eyes are watered.

Arya gave no comments when Dessy came to this sensitive part.  Honestly, He never mentioned that the last reason for his departure to Indonesia is to evade and escape from Dessy. He likes Dessy as a friend, but he has been seriously thinking that their relationship is dangerous. A sort of grave violation of Islamic teaching. They frequently hang around together and walking sides by the side like a husband and wife.   Rihan, his Pakistani buddy, often reminds Arya that his relationship with Dessy is improper and dangerous,  Arya agreed a hundred per cent with this buddy.

A week later.  Arya left downtown Chicago by blue train, heading to O’Hare.  His flight to Jakarta by Japan Airlines due to take off three hours ahead.  He doesn’t take a cab even though he afforded to ride one.   Arya just wants to enjoy his last blue line trip to O’Hare.  A little bit unusual, Dessy didn’t accompany him.  She has been depressed with Arya’s sudden departure.  What a poor girl. Arya completely understood this situation. Therefore, he didn’t wave goodbye to Dessy.  Instead, he had asked some sisters at Chicago Islamic Center to get in touch with Dessy frequently and guide her to complete an understanding of Islamic teaching.

The train is about to reach the international terminal no five shortly.  Arya unfolded Dessy’s letter reluctantly.  Dessy wrote: Goodbye Mas Arya, I understand entirely that Indonesia damned needs you more than me. I’m just wondering that Allah SWT will be so kind as to send you back to Chicago someday….

“You’re right, sister.  Let’s rely on Allah,” Arya whispered.

Duren Tiga, 14 January 2004

cta blue train









Heru Susetyo

Dosen Fakultas Hukum Universitas Indonesia, Peneliti Antikorupsi

VIRUS korona baru alias Covid-19 adalah musibah akbar seluruh umat manusia saat ini, tak terkecuali di Indonesia. Namun, bagi sebagian koruptor atau calon koruptor di Indonesia, Covid-19 bak “angin segar”.

Baca Juga:

Ketika perhatian dan trending topics seluruh dunia (termasuk di Indonesia) terpusat ke korona, korona, dan coran, disadari atau tidak, publik mulai lupa dengan kasus-kasus terkait korupsi di negeri ini. Apakah kasus PT Asuransi Jiwasraya, PT Asabri, kasus dugaan penyuapan Harun Masiku terhadap anggota KPU Wahyu Setiawan (WS), dan peradilan tersangka kasus penyerangan Novel Baswedan.

Dalam kasus Jiwasraya, BPK menyebutkan bahwa total kerugian negara mencapai Rp16,81 triliun. Terdiri atas kerugian negara (akibat) investasi saham Rp4,65 triliun dan kerugian negara akibat investasi di reksadana Rp12,16 triliun.

Adapun total nilai aset yang disita dari para tersangka Jiwasraya baru menyentuh Rp13,1 triliun. Aset yang disita berupa tanah, bangunan, saham, kendaraan, dan perhiasan. Enam tersangka sudah ditetapkan Kejaksaan Agung, yang terdiri atas para direktur dan komisaris PT maupun pejabat-pejabat PT Asuransi Jiwasraya.

Dalam kasus PT Asabri, BPK menaksir kerugian negara bisa mencapai Rp16 triliun. Dalam audit BPK, Asabri kedapatan membeli saham bodong senilai Rp802 miliar. Perseroan juga tercatat membeli dua saham gorengan, yakni milik PT Eureka Prima Jakarta Tbk (LCGP) senilai Rp203,9 miliar dan PT Sugih Energy Tbk (SUGI) sebesar Rp452 miliar.

Ada juga pelepasan 12 saham non-blue chip senilai Rp1,062 triliun, sebelumnya dibeli dengan harga Rp987 miliar ke reksadana afiliasi yang diduga bertujuan mengerek keuntungan akhir tahun.

Selain itu, BPK menyoroti pembelian ribuan kaveling tanpa sertifikat
senilai Rp732 miliar. Sementara itu, kasus penyuapan WS anggota KPU oleh tersangka Harun Masiku dan Saeful Bahri, orang suruhannya, sudah sampai proses persidangan. Saeful didakwa menyuap WS Rp600 juta terkait pergantian antarwaktu caleg PDIP, Harun Masiku. Uniknya, sampai tulisan ini dibuat, Harun Masiku tetap raib. Sudah tiga bulan sejak anggota KPU WS dan tujuh lainnya ditangkap pada pekan pertama Januari 2020, Harun Masiku masih tetap raib.

Kemudian, lahirnya Perppu No 1 tahun 2020 tentang Kebijakan Keuangan Negara dan Stabilitas Sistem Keuangan untuk Penanganan Pandemi Covid-19 membuat para pegiat antikorupsi menjadi waswas. Kemunculan Perppu ini amat wajar dan penting sebagai strategi keuangan negara untuk menangani pandemi Covid-19. Namun, ada satu pasal yang mengkhawatirkan, yaitu Pasal 27 (angka 1, 2, dan 3) yang menyebutkan bahwa segala uang yang dikeluarkan adalah biaya ekonomi bukan kerugian negara.

Pasal 27 Ayat 2 menyebutkan bahwa semua pejabat keuangan memiliki kekebalan hukum (secara pidana maupun perdata). Kemudian, Pasal 27 ayat 3 mengatur, semua kebijakan keuangan yang dikeluarkan berdasarkan Perppu No 1/2020 bukan merupakan objek gugatan di PTUN.

Perppu ini dinilai memberikan kekebalan hukum bagi pejabat pengguna anggaran. Apalagi, pejabat-pejabat tersebut tak dapat digugat perdata ataupun di proses pidana jika dalam melaksanakan tugas didasarkan
pada iktikad baik. Dan, telah ada beberapa kelompok yang mengajukan uji materi terhadap Perppu ini ke Mahkamah Konstitusi RI.

Mencegah Potensi Korupsi

Demi memuluskan perang melawan Covid-19 dan sekaligus mencegah potensi terjadinya korupsi, pemerintah harus dapat menjamin bahwa Perppu No 1/2020 ini benar-benar dikeluarkan karena suasana genting dan kebutuhan mendesak, yaitu timbulnya pandemi yang disebabkan oleh Covid-19. Di mana diperlukan berbagai upaya pemerintah untuk melakukan penyelamatan kesehatan dan perekonomian nasional, dengan fokus pada belanja untuk kesehatan, jaring pengaman sosial (social safety net), serta pemulihan perekonomian, termasuk untuk dunia usaha dan masyarakat yang terdampak.

Maka, diperlukan pemberian kewenangan bagi pemerintah agar dapat melakukan realokasi dan refocusing anggaran yang sebelumnya telah dialokasikan dalam APBN tahun 2020. Biaya yang dikeluarkan pemerintah ini adalah biaya ekonomi yang bertujuan untuk penyelamatan negara dari krisis dan tidak bisa dianggap sebagai merupakan kerugian negara.

APBN sebagai alat untuk mencapai tujuan negara digunakan sepenuhnya untuk kepentingan rakyat. Ketika keadaan mendesak dan darurat, APBN sebagai alat tersebut dapat disesuaikan penggunaannya untuk menjadi penolong keselamatan negara sehingga biaya yang dikeluarkan tidak bisa disebut sebagai kerugian negara.

Sementara itu, Azsmar Halim (2020) menyebutkan bahwa di masa pandemi seperti saat ini, negara tetap dituntut bergerak cepat. Jangan sampai tidak adanya dasar peraturan perundang-undangan membuat pemerintah menjadi tidak dapat melaksanakan aktivitasnya.

Agar tidak adanya kebuntuan dan disfungsi dalam penyelenggaraan pemerintahan, pemerintah dituntut berani untuk melakukan diskresi. Ihwal diskresi ini telah diatur oleh Undang-Undang No 30 Tahun 2014 tentang Administrasi Pemerintahan. Pasal 22 UU ini menyebutkan bahwa diskresi hanya dapat dilakukan oleh Pejabat Pemerintahan yang berwenang.

Selain itu, setiap penggunaan Diskresi Pejabat Pemerintahan haruslah bertujuan untuk: (a). melancarkan penyelenggaraan pemerintahan; (b) mengisi kekosongan hukum; dan (c) memberikan kepastian hukum. Selanjutnya Pejabat Pemerintah yang menggunakan Diskresi sebagaimana diatur pada Pasal 24 UU Administrasi Pemerintahan, harus memenuhi syarat antara lain: tidak bertentangan dengan ketentuan peraturan perundang-undangan; sesuai dengan Asas-
Asas Umum Pemerintahan yang Baik (Good Governance and Clean Government); berdasarkan alasan-alasan yang objektif; tidak menimbulkan Konflik Kepentingan; dan dilakukan dengan iktikad baik.

Perangi Korona dan Perangi Korupsi

Perang melawan korona dan perang melawan korupsi harus tetap berjalan. Jangan sampai pandemi Covid-19 ini bak memberikan “angin segar” bagi korupsi di Indonesia. Kasus Jiwasraya, Asabri, Harun Masiku, hingga persidangan terdakwa kasus penganiayaan Novel Baswedan, serta kasus-kasus lainnya harus terus berlangsung walaupun Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi (KPK) sedang terlemahkan secara struktural.

Pelemahan KPK memang amat disayangkan. Apalagi, Presiden tidak jadi melahirkan Perppu untuk menganulir UU KPK 2019. Undang-Undang KPK No 19 tahun 2019 secara eksplisit telah melemahkan KPK secara struktural di mana KPK diletakkan sebagai lembaga negara di rumpun eksekutif yang akan mengurangi independensi KPK. Pegawai KPK merupakan Aparatur Sipil Negara.

Selanjutnya bagian yang mengatur bahwa pimpinan adalah penanggung jawab tertinggi dihapus. Pimpinan KPK bukan lagi Penyidik dan Penuntut Umum sehingga akan berisiko pada tindakan-tindakan projusticia dalam pelaksanaan tugas penindakan.

Dewan Pengawas lebih berkuasa daripada pimpinan KPK. Potensi pelemahan lain adalah kewenangan Dewan Pengawas masuk pada teknis penanganan perkara, yaitu memberikan atau tidak memberikan izin penyadapan, penggeledahan, dan penyitaan.

Dampaknya, Operasi Tangkap Tangan (OTT) menjadi lebih sulit dilakukan karena lebih rumitnya pengajuan penyadapan dan aturan lain yang ada di UU KPK.

Di sisi lain, Indeks Persepsi Korupsi (Corruption Perception Index) Indonesia tahun 2019 (versi Transparency International) masih memprihatinkan. Indonesia berada di peringkat 85 dari 186 negara dengan skor 40, seurutan dengan Burkina Faso, Lesotho, Kuwait, Guyana, dan Trinidad & Tobago.

Di Asia Tenggara, peringkat Indonesia masih kalah dibandingkan dengan Singapura (10 besar dunia) dan Malaysia (di urutan ke-51).

Parahnya, menurut KPK, antara 2014-2019 institusi paling banyak melakukan korupsi justru adalah DPR dan DPRD (255 anggota), lalu eksekutif di pemerintahan (203 orang), kepala daerah (108 tersangka), menteri/ kepala lembaga negara (27 tersangka). Berikutnya, hakim sebanyak 22 tersangka, 7 jaksa dan komisioner, 11 advokat, 6 korporasi, 4 Duta Besar, dan 2 tersangka polisi.

Di luar institusi publik, pihak swasta sendiri adalah pelaku korupsi terbanyak dengan jumlah 372 tersangka dalam lima tahun. Maka, jangan beri angin segar pada korupsi. Tetaplah memerangi korona seraya memerangi korupsi. Lembaga seperti KPK, Kejaksaan dan Kepolisian harus kembali diperkuat ekosistemnya dalam perang melawan korupsi.

Penyelenggara Negara dan swasta juga jangan memancing di air keruh dari anggaran penanggulangan Covid-19. Transparansi dan akuntabilitas adalah harga mati. Juga integritas dan kejujuran harus dibangun di semua institusi, termasuk dari rumah, keluarga, lingkungan masyarakat sekitar, di sekolah, kampus, hingga badan-badan pemerintah maupun swasta. Asas-asas umum pemerintahan yang baik dan prinsip-prinsip good governance and clean government wajib menjadi pegangan.

Selandia Baru (New Zealand) dan Denmark bisa bergantian menduduki posisi puncak negara paling bersih dari korupsi di dunia (versi Transparency International) dengan menerapkan budaya antikorupsi dan toleransi nol terhadap korupsi. Padahal, di kedua negara tersebut tak ada lembaga serupa KPK. Di sana, transparansi dan akuntabilitas adalah harga mati. Semua institusi sudah memiliki “KPK-nya” sendiri.

Sistemnya sudah terinternalisasi secara pribadi kepada warga negara maupun secara kelembagaan. Setiap lembaga adalah “KPK”. Setiap orang adalah “KPK.”

Sekali lagi, jangan beri angin segar pada korupsi. Cukuplah korona membuat kita menderita secara kolektif, jangan tambah penderitaan kita dengan korupsi. Bersama kita melawan korona, bersama kita melawan korupsi.